Human Skin Color Variation

Bibliography

Cann, R., Stoneking, M., Wilson, A., 1987. Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature 352, 31-36.

Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Menozzi, P., Piazza, A., 1994. The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Ebersberger, I., Metzler, D., Schwarz, C., Pääbo, S., 2002. Genomewide comparison of DNA sequences between humans and chimpanzees. American Journal of Human Genetics 70, 1490–1497.

Fischer, A., Wiebe, V., Pääbo, S., Przeworski, M., 2004. Evidence for a complex demographic history of chimpanzees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 21, 799-808.

Forster, P., 2004. Ice Ages and the mitochondrial DNA chronology of human dispersals: a review. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 359, 255–264.

Gonder, M.K., Mortensen, H.M., Reed, F.A., de Sousa, A., Tishkoff, S.A., 2007. Whole-mtDNA genome sequence analysis of ancient African lineages. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24, 757–768.

Hinds D.A., Stuve L.L., Nilsen G.B., Halperin E., Eskin E., Ballinger D.G., Frazer K.A., Cox D.R., 2005. Whole-genome patterns of common DNA variation in three human populations. Science 307, 1072–1079.

Ingman, M., Kaessmann, H., Pääbo, S., Gyllensten, U., 2000. Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans. Nature 408, 708–713.

Ingman, M., Gyllensten, U., 2001. Analysis of the complete human mtDNA genome: methodology and inferences for human evolution. Journal of Heredity 2001:92, 454-461.

Jorde, L.B., Watkins, W.S., Bamshad, M.J., Dixon, M.E., Ricker, C.E., Seielstad, M.T., Batzer, M.A., 2000. The distribution of human genetic diversity: a comparison of mitochondrial, autosomal, and Y-chromosome data. American Journal of Human Genetics 66, 979–988.

Kaessmann, H., Heissig, F., von Haeseler, A., Pääbo, S., 1999. DNA sequence variation in a non-coding region of low recombination on the human X chromosome. Nature Genetics 22, 78-81.

Kaessmann, H., Wiebe, V., Weiss, G., Pääbo, S., 2001. Great ape DNA sequences reveal a reduced diversity and an expansion in humans. Nature Genetics 27, 155–156.

Kivisild, T., Shen, P., Wall, D.P., Do, B., Sung, R., Davis, K., Passarino, G., Underhill, P.A., Scharfe, C., Torroni, A., Scozzari, R., Modiano, D., Coppa, A., de Knijff, P., Feldman, M., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Oefner, P.J., 2006. The role of selection in the evolution of human mitochondrial genomes. Genetics 172, 373-387.

Lewontin, R., 1972. The apportionment of human diversity. Evolutionary Biology 6: 381-398.

Melnick, D.J., Hoelzer, G.A., 1993. What is mtDNA good for in the study of primate evolution? Evolutionary Anthropology 2, 2-10.

Serre, D., Pääbo, S., 2004. Evidence for gradients of human genetic diversity within and among continents. Genome Research 14, 1679-1685.

Tishkoff, S., Deitzsch, E., Speed, W., Pakstis, A., Kidd, J., Cheung, K., Bonne-Tamir, M., Santachiara-Benerecetti, A., Moral, P., Krings, M., Paabo, S., Watson, E., Reisch, N., Jenkins, T., Kidd, K., 1996. Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins. Science 271, 1380-1387.

Tishkoff, S.A., Reed, F.A., Friedlaender, F.R., Ehret, C., Ranciaro, A., Froment, A., Hirbo, J.B., Awomoyi, A.A., Bodo, J-M., Doumbo, O., Ibrahim, M., Juma, A.T., Kotze, M.J., Lema, G., Moore, J.H., Mortensen, H., Nyambo, T.B., Omar, S.A., Powell, K., Pretorius, G.S., Smith, M.W., Thera, M.A., Wambebe, C., Weber, J.L., and Williams, S.M. 2009. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans. Science 324, 1035-1044.

Underhill, P.A., Shen, P., Lin, A.A., Jin, L., Passarino, G., Yang, W.H., Kauffman, E., Bonné-Tamir, B., Bertranpetit, J., Francalacci, P., Ibrahim, M., Jenkins, T., Kidd, J.R., Mehdi, S.Q., Seielstad, M.T., Wells, R.S., Piazza, A., Davis, R.W., Feldman, M.W., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Oefner, P.J., 2000. Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations. Nature Genetics 26, 358-361.

Whitfield, L., Sulston, J., Goodfellow, P., 1995. A recent common ancestry for human Y chromosomes. Nature 378, 379-380.

 

Web Resources

http://www.understandingrace.org/humvar/

http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/aea/aea_syl.html

https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/index.html