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How Do We Know These Are Different Species?
Although outward appearances vary widely, all modern humans have strikingly similar skulls. They have defining features that differ from those in early human skulls.
The same holds true for early human skulls. Features such as the shape and size of the braincase, face, and teeth distinguish each fossil species.
Neanderthal Modern human
Large brow ridge Small brow ridge
Low forehead High forehead
Middle part of face juts out Middle part of face is beneath forehead